What follows is the outline for a two-day seminar on color digital imaging. Courses emphasizing general digital imaging have also been arranged.

Smart Color '94
Adding Intelligence to Color Imaging Peripherals

Five of the world's leading experts show how state-of-the-art color technology is being embedded into the next generation ofo Smart Color printers, displays, scanners, and software.

September 12-13th, 1994
Stanford University

Designed for engineers and senior management as an in-depth introduction to color technology and its role in the design of imaging products


The speakers

Dr. Roy S. Berns is the Richard S. Hunter Professor in Color Science, Appearance, and Technology, and Director of the Munsell Color Science Laboratory at Rochester Institute of Technology. He is chairman of the CIE technical committees on Measurement of Color Self-Luminous Displays and Rod Intrusion in Metameric Color matches, and he is active in several additional committees concerned with color difference specification, chromatic adaptation, and characterizing spectrophotometric accuracy. Dr. Berns serves on the editorial staff of _Color Research and Application_. In 1990, he received the ISCC Macbeth award for significant contributions to the field of color. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in textile science from the University of California at Davis and a Ph.D. degree in chemistry from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, directed by Dr. Fred Billmeyer, Jr.

Dr. Robert Hunt was a member of the Kodak Research Laboratories for 36 years, and is a Visiting Professor of Physiological Optics at City University, London, England. He is author of two books, _The Reproduction of Colour_, and _Measuring Colour_, and has contributed many papers on color reproduction and color vision to scientific journals in these fields. His current research interests include modeling the human color vision system, and applying color science to problems in industry. He was a chairman of the Colorimetry Committee of the C.I.E. from 1975 to 1983, and President of the International Colour Association from 1981 to 1985, and has received numerous awards and distinctions in the field of color science. Dr. Hunt received a B.Sc., a Ph.D. and a D.Sc. from London University, England.

Dr. Louis Silverstein is the Chief Scientist and Founder of VCD Science, Inc. and organization involved in R&D in applied vision, color science and display technology. He is currently involved in display-related research at Xerox PARC, NASA Ames, Motorola Corporate Research and Hughes Aircraft. Prior to founding VCD, Dr. Silverstein was a Senior Research Fellow at Honeywell's Systems and Research Center. Silverstein serves on the editorial boards of _Human Factors_ and _Color Research and Applications_, and is the author of over 70 journal articles, technical papers, book chapters and technical reports. Silverstein has received seven patents in the area of display technology. He received a Ph.D. degree in Experimental Psychology and Psychophysiology from the University of Florida.

Dr. Gary Starkweather has worked at Apple Computer since 1988 where holds the prestigious position of Apple Fellow. Has spent over 32 years in the optical sciences, imaging and related computer fields He is the holder of over 29 patents in the optics and non-impact printing fields and has published many papers and articles on the above subjects. Prior to joining Apple Computer, he was a Senior Research Fellow at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center where he worked on color imaging systems and technology. While at Xerox he developed the laser scanning technology that led to the Xerox 9700 laser printer and many related products. For this development, Xerox gave him the President's Achievement Award in 1977. In May of 1987, he received the Johann Gutenberg Prize from the Society for Information Display for his accomplishments in laser electrophotography. In January of 1990 he received the Engineering Excellence Award from the Optical Society of America. He has taught numerous courses and seminars on electronic and color printing as well as personal computer based imaging technology.

Dr. Brian Wandell has been at Stanford University since 1979. Wandell's research has spanned many aspects of color including models of color appearance, color constancy, surface and illuminant estimation, digital color printing and digital color scanning. He is author of a forthcoming book on visual behavior, neuroscience and computation entitled _Foundations of Vision_. Wandell has served as an editor of _Vision Research_ and _Neural Networks_ and a consultant to the Hewlett-Packard Corp. and the Xerox Corp. Wandell received the Troland Research Award from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for his work in color vision, and he was made a Fellow of the Optical Society of America.


Introduction to Color: Science and Engineering (day 1)

Monday, September 12th, 1994

7:00-8:00 Registration and coffee
8:00-8:15 Welcome

8:15-9:45 Additive color principles (Hunt)

Objectives in color reproduction, spectral color reproduction, trichromatic color reproduction and its limitations, spectral sensitivities for cameras, scanners, color-matching, color rendering of light sources, color matrixing and gamma correction.

9:45-11:00 Colorimetry and Color Transforms (Wandell)

The CIE standard observer and colorimetry system; color discrimination, color metrics (CIELAB, CIELUV), demonstrations of colorimetric calculations.

11:00-11:15 Coffee Break
11:00-12:15 Subtractive color principles (Hunt)

Subtractive principles and limitations, spectral sensitivities for photography, colorimetry of subtractive systems, tone reproduction and dynamic range, subtractive chromaticity gamuts, color negatives, and the inter-image effect.

12:15-1:30 Lunch
1:30-2:45 Halftoning and Digital halftoning (Hunt/Wandell)

Halftone images, correcting for unwanted ink absorptions, dot gain, reolution in continuous tone, dithering and error diffusion, comparison of digital printer technologies, the Neugebauer equations, digital halftone methods and demonstrations of error diffusion, pattern dither, blue noise dither; perceptual masking.

2:45-3:00 Break, Questions, Discussion
3:00-4:00 Qualitative Aspects of Color Appearance (Wandell)

Encoding of light by the eye and brain, factors contributing to appearance, chromatic adaptation, contrast; Munsell and other color appearance systems, the spatial sensitivity of the eye to color.

4:00-5:00 A Color Appearance Model (Hunt)

A discussion of the principles of the Hunt Color Appearance model, including the spectral sensitivity curves of the eye, color difference signals, criteria for constant hue, adaptation and its effect on color appearance, saturation, chroma, and colorfulness; experimental test of the model; a color reproduction index.

5:00-6:00 Meet the Speakers

An informal opportunity for small-group discussion with the seminar speakers.

Topics in Color: Engineering and Applications (day 2)

8:30-9:45 Smart Color Scanners (Wandell)

General principles of scanner calibration and characterization; high dynamic range (HDR), sensor spectral estimation, lookup table and matrix transformations to device independent coordinates, choosing a scanner calibration target. 10:00-12:00 Smart Color Printers (Starkweather)

Printer operation, technology description, thresholding versus halftone, device stability, modeling the color reproduction process. Color management, device characterization, device calibration, controller requirements, color gamuts, device profiles, and optimization issues.

12:00-1:00 Lunch (Guest lecture)
1:00-2:30 Smart Color Displays: (Silverstein)

Color display technologies, principles of Color CRT/LCD operation, fundamentals of display colorimetry, color spaces for displays, methods of CRT/LCD color reproduction and control, CRT/LCD system characterization and calibration, CRT/LCD performance limitations and optimization, CRT/LCD measurement/characterization issues and caveats, Implications of CRT/LCD display controller designs

2:45-4:15 Cross media matching I (Berns)

Color reproduction in cross-media settings, scanner to CRT, CRT to print, color appearance theory; look-up tables and interpolation technology; applications of color-interchange and representation technologies; color reproduction evaluations, the use of appearance models in cross-media matching, psychophysical evaluations, experimental testing techniques, user evaluation.

4:30-5:30 Smart Color Imaging in the Digital Office (Invited Speaker)

Integrating color peripherals into the future imaging platforms of the digital office. The roles of Microsoft at Work, Novell's Netware, Lotus Notes, Apple ColorSync for image and document communication are explored.

5:30-6:00 Audience Discussion and Questions